Last time, we discussed the early stages of removal from the East to the West, where there was an opportunity to make money. In the last stages of removal, west of the Mississippi, there was no opportunity for the traffic. Anyone interested in making money at that time found state markets very fast because all they had to do was deliver the pass at Steve at Multi-Prime. Opportunities arose in different states, allowing people to make money, which is part of what this presentation covers today.

Years ago, the groundwork was laid for that generation. I want to begin by talking about some of those connections and the people who came in the next generation. For example, consider the Treaty of No Expand 1820. Tom Time, who served under General Andrew Jackson, was a significant negotiator then. He, along with others who had connections with Jackson, provided many leaders in the removal process.

John Coffee, a business partner of Jackson, was deeply involved in land speculation and surveying. Many involved in land surveying were also land speculators, which goes hand-in-hand. Coffee laid out Florence, Alabama, and surveyed the area, knowing the importance of transportation.

John Eaton, married to Mary Lewis, was another key figure. He surveyed the land between Alabama and Mississippi and was involved in Jackson’s administration. John Coffee’s connections with influential families, such as the Green and Hinds families, helped shape the removal process.

Let’s talk about some notable connections. For instance, Thomas Hinds married into the Green family, creating a network of influence. John Coffee’s brother, Abraham, was married to Elizabeth, who was Rachel Jackson’s niece. These family ties created a web of influence crucial to the removal process.

Administrative jobs in removal often overlapped with land surveying and speculation. For example, John Coffee was a surveyor and land speculator who knew the best sites for money-making and arable land.

John Eaton was married to a ward of Andrew Jackson, and their connections facilitated the removal process. Many individuals who served Jackson in various capacities were rewarded with positions of influence, such as William Berkeley Lewis, who became the second auditor of the Treasury.

In the case of Senator Lucius Lyon of Michigan, he was connected to key figures like Richard Mentor Johnson, vice president under Martin Van Buren, and his brother Benjamin Johnson, a prominent judge in Arkansas. These connections show how political influence and family ties played a significant role in the removal process.

Francis W. Armstrong and William Armstrong were both superintendents of Indian Affairs. They married into influential families, further solidifying their roles in the removal process. When Francis died, his widow married Richard Barnes Mason, a commander at Fort Gibson and Fort Towson, showcasing the interconnectedness of these influential figures.

Robert B. Crockett, the son of Davy Crockett, was involved in the removal process and related to influential figures like Marcus B. Winchester, a commissary for Chickasaw removal rations and a key player in Memphis. These connections reveal a network of influence spanning various states and roles in the removal process.

To sum up, the groundwork laid by influential families and their connections facilitated the removal process. Key figures like John Coffee, John Eaton, and others played significant roles, leveraging their connections to shape the removal of Native Americans from their lands.

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